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Securities: Types and Characteristics

Adam Lienhard
Securities: Types and Characteristics

A security is a financial asset that can have different types: debt, equity, derivative, or hybrid securities. Securities can represent ownership, debt, or rights to an underlying asset or entity. Securities are regulated by different authorities depending on the jurisdiction and the nature of the security.

How they work

Trading securities involves buying and selling these contracts through various platforms, such as stock exchanges, over-the-counter markets, and electronic trading systems. 

Trading securities can be risky, but also rewarding, depending on the factors that affect the value of the security, such as the company’s performance, the economic conditions, and the market knowledge of the trader. 

Securities are subject to different regulations to ensure fair practices and investor protection. In the US, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the main regulator of securities.


These are equity securities that represent ownership shares in a corporation. Stockholders can benefit from dividends and capital gains, but they also bear the risk of losses and dilution. Stocks can be traded on stock exchanges or over-the-counter markets.


These are debt securities that represent loans to a borrower, such as a corporation or a government. Bondholders can receive periodic interest payments and the principal amount at maturity, but they also face the risk of default and interest rate fluctuations. Bonds can be classified by their issuer, maturity, coupon, rating, and other features.


These are derivative securities that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a specified price and time. Options can be used for hedging, speculation, or income generation. Options can be traded on exchanges or over-the-counter markets.


These are derivative securities that obligate the buyer and seller to exchange an underlying asset at a specified price and time in the future. Futures can be used for hedging, speculation, or arbitrage. Futures are standardized contracts that are traded on exchanges.

Securities are important in the financial world as they are the most common form of investment. They enable companies to raise funds from the public and are also preferred by individuals for retirement savings.

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